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MBA 毕业生的三级跳

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When it comes to travelling around Europe, young Americans can attack their itineraries with dizzying enthusiasm.


在环游欧洲旅行时,美国年轻人可能在行程安排上表现出令人眩晕的热情。


On a recent visit to Italy I met two young American tourists in Rome and Florence. They had allocated a day for each city and were running about armed with a to-do list. Selfie on St Peter’s Square, check. Quick look at the Colosseum, done.


在最近前往意大利时,我在罗马和佛罗伦萨遇到了两个年轻的美国游客。他们为每个城市安排了一天的行程,拿着任务清单四处奔波。在圣彼得广场(St Peter’s Square)自拍,已办。快速参观罗马竞技场(Colosseum),搞定。


This exhausting globe-trotting is not the defining characteristic of American MBA students, however, at least not when it comes to their courses and immediate post-graduation careers.


然而,这种累人的环球旅行并不是美国MBA学生的标志性特征,至少在课程安排和毕业后职业去向方面不是。


Those on US MBA programmes tend not to spend part of their studies or an internship abroad, or take a foreign job afterwards either. The 47 US schools in the FT’s Global MBA ranking 2016 are disproportionally found in the bottom half on both counts. Only 6 per cent of MBA students enrolled in the US studied overseas for a month or more, compared with 26 per cent at other schools. The proportion of graduates doing an internship overseas is nearly half that of non-US schools.


那些在美国读MBA课程的毕业生往往不会在海外完成部分学业或者实习,在毕业后也不会接受海外职位。英国《金融时报》2016年全球MBA排名(Global MBA Ranking)中的47所美国院校不成比例地在两项排名的下半部分扎堆。在美国院校入学的MBA学生中,仅有6[%]的人在海外学习一个月以上,而其他国家院校的这一比例为26[%]。美国MBA毕业生在海外实习的比例差不多是非美国院校的一半。


North Carolina’s Kenan-Flagler Business School and Stanford Graduate School of Business in California are rare exceptions in each category, with 25 per cent and 30 per cent of graduates, respectively.


北卡罗来纳州凯南-弗拉格勒商学院(Kenan-Flagler Business School)以及加州斯坦福大学商学院(Stanford Graduate School of Business)是两项排名中难得的例外,其比例分别为毕业生总数的25[%]和30[%]。


While a short trip to Italy is fine for some, one US graduate from the class of 2012 who took part in the FT’s 2016 MBA rankings survey had greater ambitions.


尽管去意大利短期旅行对一些人来说够好了,但是参加2016年全球MBA排名调查的一名2012级美国MBA毕业生拥有更大的野心。


In his anonymised survey response, used in compiling our league table of schools, he said his MBA from the Haas School of Business at the University of California, Berkeley, “was fundamental to achieving the mobility I had dreamt of: to work in Italy”.


在匿名接受的调查(用于编制FT商学院排名)中,他自称从加州大学伯克利分校的哈斯商学院(Haas School of Business, University of California Berkeley)获得的MBA学位“对于实现我的出国梦想——到意大利工作——具有根本的重要性”。


The Haas graduate did not only move abroad but also managed to switch career and industry sector. In short, he achieved the MBA “triple jump”. This is when graduates change country of residence, career and industry after graduating.


这位哈斯毕业生不仅迁往海外,还成功地实现了跳槽和转行。简言之,他实现了MBA“三级跳”——即毕业后出国、跳槽和转行。


While “triple jumpers” do not always find it easy to make a fresh start, their broader experience means they are able to work in an increasingly global environment. “I gained the knowledge in strategy and marketing that I needed to change industries,” said one graduate from Warwick Business School.


尽管“三级跳选手”并不总能轻松得到全新的开端,但他们更丰富的阅历意味着他们能够在日益全球化的环境中工作。“我得到了改变行业所必需的策略和营销知识,”华威商学院(Warwick Business School)的一名毕业生称。


The first jump, switching career, is the more common achievement: 82 per cent of graduates surveyed by the FT reported that they did this successfully. “My MBA gave me the confidence to start a new career and a Swiss Army knife of skills to adapt to different challenges and corporate environments,” said one graduate from Cass Business School.


第一跳——开始全新的职业生涯——是较为普遍的成就:在FT的调查中,82[%]的MBA毕业生报告称,他们成功实现了跳槽。“我的MBA让我有信心开启全新的职业生涯,我有了瑞士军刀般的全套技能,可以适应不同挑战和企业环境,”卡斯商学院(Cass Business School)的一名毕业生称。


When it comes to the second jump — working in a different industry — 62 per cent made a switch. The number of graduates in healthcare and retail and consumer grew by more than 60 per cent. But despite the hype about tech start-ups, the number of those employed in IT/telecoms fell by nearly 10 per cent.


对于第二跳——换到不同的行业工作——62[%]的MBA毕业生换了行业。在医疗、零售和消费者行业工作的毕业生人数增加了逾60[%]。但是,尽管围绕科技初创企业的炒作很多,但是在IT/电信行业受雇的MBA毕业生实际上减少了近10[%]。


In terms of international mobility, the final jump, a third of alumni worked in a different country three years after graduation. But only 12 per cent of American graduates switched location, half of which returned to the US after their MBA. Arguably this is because the US is the world’s largest economy with more corporations providing many job opportunities. Only the students from mainland China at the universities of Fudan, Shanghai Jiao Tong and Renmin, who all work in China, are less mobile.


在人才国际化流动的问题上——终极跳——三分之一的MBA毕业生在毕业3年后在不同国家工作。但是仅有12[%]的美国毕业生在异国工作,其中一半人在完成MBA学业后回到了美国。可以说这是因为美国是全球最大的经济体,拥有较多企业和大量工作机会。只有中国内地MBA毕业生的国际流动性比美国更低,复旦大学、上海交通大学和中国人民大学MBA毕业生都在中国国内工作。


This compares with two-thirds of Italian and French graduates who moved overseas and 93 per cent of Venezuelans. The three most popular destinations are the US, the UK and Singapore.


与之相比,三分之二的意大利和法国毕业生、以及93[%]的委内瑞拉毕业生选择前往海外工作。最热门的三个目的地为美国、英国和新加坡。


Overall, 20 per cent of MBA graduates made the triple jump. But who is the typical triple jumper? They tend to be Indian, work in the US and moved from IT/telecoms into consultancy. At the other end, 10 per cent of graduates stayed with their employer in the same country.


总体来说,20[%]的MBA毕业生实现了三级跳。但是,谁才是典型的三级跳选手?他们往往是印度人,他们在美国工作,从IT/电信行业跳到咨询行业。在另一端,10[%]的人毕业后仍然在原来的国家为原来的公司效力。


An MBA may open a world of opportunities but for some there is no place like home.


MBA学位也许打开了一扇机遇世界的大门,但是对于某些人来说,哪里都比不上故乡。


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